Chemical vapour deposition (CVD)

CVD method is classical and one of the most usable approaches had been widely spread out during the last decades of the XX century. For modern technological challenges highly reliable synthesis approaches are required because of that need to be capable of obtaining large amounts of high purity materials with stable enough and reproducible way. CVD is considered among many other techniques as one of the most effective. Due to the high quality of the final products and perfect scalability of this method, it has been widely applied for successful growth of carbon nanotubes, graphene and non-carbon materials by many researchers. 

The growth process via CVD (particularly for graphene) involves decomposition of carbon source in the presence of catalysts. The carbon source could be injected in different forms. The process of CVD contains the following steps: (A) the hydrocarbon source decomposes to form carbon atoms by heat (thermal CVD) or plasma (plasma-CVD); (B) the first step is followed by the adsorption of carbon atoms on the surface of catalyst/substrate; (C) finally, these carbon atoms form nanomaterials depending on the shape, structure and chemical nature of the substrate.

CVD method offers a lot of advantages in thin film deposition and has already given birth to a wide variety of related modern technologies. Atmospheric pressure CVD is attractive for many applications with its high deposition rates and resulting short process times. Because CVD processes are based on interfacial chemistry, they are sensitive to contamination and load-lock systems have to be used in order to keep the low contamination level. Selective deposition shows fascinating prospects for the future, not only for microelectronic applications but also for materials science and engineering of interfaces and artificial materials.